Radiofrequency Radiation
Dosimetry Handbook

(Fourth Edition)

Contents



PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST OF TABLES

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. HOW TO USE DOSIMETRIC DATA IN THIS HANDBOOK
  3. SOME BASICS OF ELECTROMAGNETICS
  4. 3.1. Terms and Units

    3.1.1. Glossary
    3.1.2. Measurement Units
    3.1.3. Vectors and Fields

    3.2. Field Characteristics

    3.2.1. Electric Fields
    3.2.2. Magnetic Fields
    3.2.3. Static Field
    3.2.4 Quasi-Static Fields
    3.2.5. Electric Potential
    3.2.6. Interaction of Fields with Materials
    3.2.7. Maxwell's Equations
    3.2.8. Wave Solutions to Maxwell's Equations
    3.2.9. Solutions to Maxwell's Equations Related to Wavelength
    3.2.10. Near Fields
    3.2.11. Far Fields
    3.2.12. Guided Waves

    3.3. Absorption Characteristics

    3.3.1. Poynting's Theorem (Energy Conservation Theorem)
    3.3.2. Interaction of fields with Objects
    3.3.3. Electrical Properties of Biological Tissue
    3.3.4. Planewave Absorption Versus Frequency
    3.3.5. Polarization
    3.3.6. Specific Absorption Rate

    3.4 Concepts of Measurements

    3.4.1. Electric-Field Measurements
    3.4.2. Magnetic-Field Measurements
    3.4.3. SAR Measurements

    3.5 Rules of Thumb and Frequently Used Relationships

  5. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
  6. 4.1 Characteristics of Biological Tissue

    4.1.1. Electrical Properties
    4.1.2. Membrane Interactions
    4.1.3. Field-Generated Force Effects
    4.1.4. Possibility of Weak Nonthermal Interactions

    4.2. Measurement Techniques

    4.2.1. Introduction
    4.2.2. Low-Frequency Techniques
    4.2.3. High-Frequency Techniques
    4.2.4. Time-Domain Measurements
    4.2.5. Measurement of In Vivo Dielectric Properties
    4.2.6. Summary

    4.3. Tabulated Summary of Measured Values

  7. THEORETICAL DOSIMETRY
  8. 5.1 Methods of Calculation

    5.1.1. Planewave Dosimetry
    5.1.2. Near-Field Dosimetry
    5.1.3. Sensitivity of SAR Calculations to Permitivity Changes
    5.1.4. Relative Absorption Cross Section
    5.1.5. Qualitative Dosimetry

    5.2 Data for Models of Biological Systems

    5.3 Tabulated Summary of Published Work in Theoretical Dosimetry

  9. CALCULATED DOSIMETRIC DATA
  10. 6.1 Calculated Planewave Dosimetric Data for Average SAR

    6.2 Calculated Near-Field Dosimetric Data for Average SAR

    6.2.1 Short-Dipole and Small-Loop Irradiators
    6.2.2. Aperture Fields

  11. EXPERIMENTAL DOSIMETRY
  12. 7.1. History of Experimental Dosimetry

    7.2. Measurement Techniques

    7.2.1. Dosimetry Requirements
    7.2.2. Holding Devices
    7.2.3. Exposure Devices for Experimental Subjects
    7.2.4. Incident-Field Measurements
    7.2.5. Measurement of Specific Absorption Rates
    7.2.6. Scaled-Model Techniques

    7.3 Tabulated Summary of Published Work in Experimental Dosimetry

  13. EXPERIMENTAL DOSIMETRIC DATA
  14. DOSIMETRY IN THE VERY-LOW-FREQUENCY AND MEDIUM-FREQUENCY RANGES
  15. 9.1 Methods

    9.1.1. Calculation of Current
    9.1.2. Measurement of Body Potential and Dimensions
    9.1.3. Calculation of Body Resistance and SAR

    9.2. Calculated and Measured Data

  16. THERMAL RESPONSES OF MAN AND ANIMALS
  17. 10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Heat Exchange Between Organism and Environment

    10.3. The Thermoregulatory Profile

    10.4. Body Heat Balance

    10.5. Metabolic Rates of Man and Animals

    10.5.1. Human Data
    10.5.2. Animal Data

    10.6. Avenues of Heat Loss

    10.6.1. Vasomotor Control
    10.6.2. Sweating

    10.7. Heat- Response Calculations

    10.7.1. Models of the Thermoregulatory System
    10.7.2. Data for Heat-Response Calculations
    10.7.3. Calculations

  18. Radiofrequency Radiation Safety Standards
  19. 11.1. Introduction

    11.2. RFR Safety Standards

    11.2.1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standards
    11.2.2. American Conference of Govermental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) TLV
    11.2.3. United States Federal Guidelines
    11.2.4. International Radiation Protection Association Guidelines

    11.3 Physical Considerations Inherents in Application of New RFR Safety Guidelines

    11.3.1. RFR Penetration and Absorption in Biological Systems
    11.3.2. Partial Versus Whole-Body Exposures
    11.3.3. Subject and Source Dynamics

    11.4 Conclusions

    11.5 Future Trends in RFR-Standards Setting

    REFERENCES




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Last modified: June 14, 1997
October 1986, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division (AFSC), Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5301