List of Tables



3.1. The SI basic units

3.2. Some derived SI units

3.3. Some rules of thumb

3.4. Some frequently used relationships

4.1. Electrical relaxation mechanism

4.2. Range of characteristic frequencies observed with biological material for -,
-, -, and - dispersion effects

4.3. Biological components and relaxation mechanisms they display.

4.4. Electrical-field effects on membranes

4.5. Biological thresholds

4.6. Mechanisms caused by field-generated forces

4.7. Real part of the complex-dielectric constant (relative permittivity) of various body tissues

4.8. Conductivity (S/m) of various body tissues

4.9. Temperature coefficient of dielectric constant of various body tissues

4.10. Temperature coefficient of conductivity of various body tissues

5.1. Application of QP1 and QP2 to planewave SARs

5.2. Average weight and length and calculated value of b for prolate spheroidal models of animals and eggs

5.3. Average weight and height and calculated value of b and c for ellipsoidal models of human-body types

5.4. Average weight and height and calculated value of b for prolate spheroidal models of human-body types

5.5. Comparison of theoretical methods used in literature to calculate the power absorption by biological models

7.1. Directions for preparing simulated muscle material for 13.56-100 MHz

7.2. Directions for preparing simulated muscle material for 200-2450 MHz

7.3. Directions for preparing simulated brain material for 915 and 2450 MHz

7.4. Directions for preparing simulated fat and bone materials for 915 and 2450 MHz

7.5. Composition and properties of simulated brain, fat, and bone tissue at microwave frequencies

7.6. Composition and electrical properties of simulated muscle for 13.56-2450 MHz

7.7. Electrical properties of simulated muscle tissue for 13.56-2450 MHz at three temperatures

7.8. Some sources of materials used to construct phantom models

7.9. Composition and electrical properties of tissue-equivalent materials

7.10. Composition and electrical properties of a liquid that has the electrical properties of tissue

7.11. Directions for preparing the tissue-equivalent materials described in Tables 7.9 and 7.10

7.12. Simulated phantom muscle material using barium titanate

7.13. Simulated fat material

7.14. General scaling relationships

7.15. Scaling relationships for typical values of scaling parameters

7.16. Compositions of the nine mixtures used for measuring dielectric properties

7.17. A summary of available experimental data on fields and SAR measurements in biological phantoms and test animals irradiated by electromagnetic fields

8.1. Measured and calculated values of average SAR for live mice

8.2. Measured and calculated values of average SAR for prolate spheroidal models of man and test animals

8.3. Whole-body average SAR for saline-filled figurines under near-field exposure conditions. Experimental frequency = simulated frequency x (height of man/height of figurine)

8.4. Internal electric field in the abdominal region of phantom figurines as a fraction of the maximum incident electric field (just in front of the figurine) for near-field exposure conditions

9.1. Summary of electric-current effects on humans

9.2. Maximum 60-Hz currents allowed to human body by national electrical code (mA) and equivalent levels at other frequencies

9.3. Current and current density in man exposed to VLF-MF [f(kHz)] 1-kV/m electric fields

9.4. Short-circuit currents for objects exposed to VLF-MF [f (kHz)] 1-kV/m electric fields

9.5. Comparison of measured and theoretical short-circuit body current for man exposed to VLF-MF electric fields with feet grounded

9.6. Measured body currents (mA/kV/m) to ground for subjects exposed under different conditions to 24.8-kHz VLF electric fields

9.7. Comparison of measured and theoretical person-to-vehicle current resulting from VLF-MF electric-field exposure

9.8. Threshold currents for perception when in contact with the copper-plate electrode and threshold incident electric fields for perception when in contact with various metallic objects

9.9. Statistical analysis of measured data on threshold currents for perception with subjects barefoot and with the wristband

9.10. Threshold currents for perception when in grasping contact with the brass-rod electrode and threshold external electric fields for perception when in contact with a compact car

9.11. Currents through the wrist and finger for maximum SAR= 8 W/kg

9.12. Dimensions of body used for VLF-MF exposure model

9.13. Distribution of power absorption (watts) in man exposed to VLF-KF fields: 1-kV/m exposure, E-field parallel long axis, 1-mA current assumed for contact with object

9.14. Average apparent conductivity of man based on whole-body on vivo measurements (S/m)

9.15. Average apparent loss factor of man based on whole-body in vivo measurements

9.16. Distribution of power absorption (watts) in man, with feet grounded, exposed to 1-kV/m VLF-MF fields while in contact with vehicle

10.1. Thermoregulatory characteristics of animals

10.2. Resting metabolic rates for normal healthy humans of specific age and somatotype

10.3. Variation of metabolic rate with activity for a normal 20-24-year-old male

10.4. Resting metabolic rates for adult laboratory animals

10.5. Specification of parameters used in calculating SAR60

11.1. ANSI radiofrequency protection guides

11.2. ACGIH radiofrequency/microwave threshold limit values

11.3. IRPA exposure limits to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

11.4. Approximate RFR penetration and absorption in humans




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Last modified: June 14, 1997
October 1986, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division (AFSC), Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5301