TABLE 4.4. Electrical-Field Effects On Membranes

Summary of various field effects on membranes (some established, some proposed). VM is the field-induced membrane potential; E, corresponding field strength in situ. E and VM are interrelated byVM = 1.5 ER (for spherical cells).
VmE, in situ
Membrane destruction100-300mV
Action potential (excitation)10 mV1 V/cm
Subtle effects0.1-1mV
Extraordinary sensitivities
A. Related to membranes
0.1 µV0.01 µV/cm
B. Possibly not related to membranes
< 1 nV0.1 µV/cm
Microwave sensitivities (1 GHz)1 µV*1 V/cm

* From VM = 1.5 ER